May = Skin Cancer Awareness Month

By: Dr. Rhonda Klein, MD, MPH, FAAD 

www.moderndermct.com

 

May is skin cancer awareness month, and given that Pure BioDerm was developed by Dermatologists, this is a topic we are obviously passionate about. It’s the perfect time to demystify some FAQs on Melanoma, and offer up some tips on how to keep your skin healthy! 

Q. What is melanoma?

A.  Melanomas are characterized by an uncontrolled growth of melanocytes, which are the pigment-producing cells. Melanomas may appear on the skin suddenly without warning, but also can develop within an existing mole.

Q.  What causes melanoma?

A.  The number one factor is exposure to UV light from sun and tanning beds. Using a tanning bed just one time increases your risk for melanoma by 59% and that risk rises with each exposure.

Melanomas also have a genetic component. It’s important to share your personal health and lifestyle history with your dermatologist as well as your family history so that these factors can be taken into consideration when you’re being examined.

Q.  I have a darker complexion and tan vs. burn, so I’m good, right?

A.  NO. While melanoma is more common among Caucasians, it can affect anyone and appear anywhere on the body. Darker pigmented individuals are often diagnosed with melanoma in more advanced stages and have higher mortality rates.

Q. Is melanoma always deadly?

A. NO. Melanoma is highly treatable when detected early, however advanced melanoma that has metastasized to the lymph nodes and internal organs is very aggressive and has high rates of mortality. It is estimated that more than 7,000 people will die from melanoma in 2019.

The average five-year survival rate for individuals whose melanoma is detected and treated before it spreads to the lymph nodes is 98 percent. The five-year survival rates for regional (lymph nodes) and distant (other organs/lymph nodes) stage melanomas are 64 percent and 23 percent, respectively.

Q. How do I know my risk?

A. Your risk is also increased if you have:   

  • More than 50 moles, large moles or atypical (unusual) moles.

  • A family history of melanoma.

  • Sun-sensitive skin (i.e., sunburn easily, red or blond hair, or blue or green eyes).

  • A history of excessive sun exposure or indoor tanning.

  • A history of previous melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancer, which is more common than melanoma.

  • A history of other previous cancers, such as breast or thyroid cancer.

 

Q.  What does melanoma look like?

A.  Melanoma can present in a variety of ways, the most important thing to watch for is change – either change to an existing spot, or the development of a new spot altogether. There is also a set of criteria to consider when looking over your own skin:

  • Asymmetry: One half does not match the other half.

  • Border irregularity: The edges are ragged, notched or blurred.

  • Color: The pigmentation is not uniform. Different shades of tan, brown or black are often present. Dashes of red, white, and blue can add to the mottled appearance.

  • Diameter: While melanomas are usually greater than 6mm in diameter (or greater than a pencil eraser) when diagnosed, they can be smaller.

  • Evolving: The mole or skin lesion looks different from the rest or is changing in size, shape or color. A mole that is flat and suddenly becomes elevated (“evolution”) can also be concerning.

 

Q.  Can melanoma be prevented?

A.   YES. Avoiding UV exposure is the most preventable risk factor. Intermittent sun exposure (ie. Occasional high dose exposure, like a warm weather vacation) is one of the biggest risk factor for melanoma.

  • Avoid the sun between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m when UV rays are the strongest.

  • UPF clothing is a great, and I recommend it for the entire family

  • Apply a broad-spectrum (protection from UVA and UVB rays), water-resistant sunscreen with SPF 30+ at least 15 minutes prior to sun exposure

  • Use SPF 30+ even on cloudy days – the sun’s rays penetrate the clouds

  • When you apply your SPF you need to use at least 1 ounce (approximately a shot glass)

  • Reapply every 2 hours when outdoors, or immediately after swimming or sweating

  • Use caution around water, snow and sand as these reflect and intensify the sun’s rays

  • Never use tanning beds, I repeat NEVER!

 

Looking for more info on how to stay safe in the sun?  Stay tuned until later this week when we will share information on the best types of sunscreen to use, and a list of our favorite sunscreens for everyone in your family! 

Sources:

Guy GP Jr, Thomas CC, Thompson T, Watson M, Massetti GM, Richardson LC. Vital signs: melanoma incidence and mortality trends and projections - United States,1982-2030. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Jun 5;64(21):591-6.

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2019. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2019.

Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2019. CA Cancer J Clin. 2019; doi: 10.3322/caac.21551

Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2015, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2015/, based on November 2017 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2018